Financial Vocabulary – Business Vocab Series

Hi everyone!

Here is the first post in the Business Vocab Series in which we will focus on Financial Vocabulary. The list is quite complete and it will probably contain all the financial terms that a business person can need, doesn’t matter if you work in finance or not.

I would like to emphasize that if you work in ANY position in a corporate environment, be it marketing, finance, engineering or other, you will need to know the vocabulary of ALL the different areas in your company. That’s because you never work isolated. Even when you are in a meeting about one specific topic, for example, a meeting that is about  a new product launch, you will need to be able to talk about everything that envolves this new product. Key topics in such a meeting would be if the legal aspects are in order, if the contracts and lead times of all the suppiers of raw material okay, what the graphics of the packaging will be, what the price, costs, profits and revenues are, if the production line and logistics for the new product are ready, how distribution channels and customers will be communicated about it, etc. Of course, you don’t need to be a specialist in all of these topics, but you need to know the essential vocabulary of all areas to be able to really understand what people are saying in the meeting and to be able to contribute with your insights.

Therefore, my advice to you is to read this list carefully and choose one or more ways to work with it, be it rereading from time to time, taking note of the most important terms for you, writing about a case at work for which you need the vocab of the list, or other. Feel free to suggest additional terms for the list, I will happily consider them.

revenue faturamento
“The company has 200 million in revenue.”
sales / gross sales  / net sales vendas / vendas brutas / vendas liquidas
“The business unit has 75 million USD in net sales.”
profit, earnings, (net) income Lucro
“Now we finally have a profit after 3 months of loss.”
dividends dividendos
“We distribute 25% of our profit as dividends.”
loss prejuizo
“Now we finally have a profit after 3 months of loss.
profitable / lucrative / viable lucrativo / lucrativo / viavel
“This product is very lucrative.”
margin / gross margin / net margin margem / margem bruta / margem liquida
“The margin on Coke is very small.”
ROI – return on investment retorno sobre investimento
“We estimate the ROI at 50%, so it’ll return in 2 years.”
turn over rotatividade, giro
“The turn over of employees is 35%.”
cash flow fluxo de caixa
“We always calculate cash flow 6 months ahead.”
reserve reserva
“15% of profits go to our reserve, no matter what.”
insurance seguro
“Health insurance is obligatory in some countries.”
budget orçamento
“We didn’t include any maintenance costs in the budget.”
forecast, foresee prever, previsão
“Economic forecasts are positive for the next year.”
balance sheet balanço patrimonial
“The balance sheet shows all the things we possess and the things that we owe.”
assets ativos (no balanço patrimonial), bens
“Jack is an asset to our company because he is very good at sales.”
liabilities passivos (no balanço patrimonial), riscos
“We don’t declare all our sales to the government, so that’s a liability.”
accounts payable contas a pagar
The accounts payable department always delays payments untill the last moment.”
accounts receivable contas a receber
“I received another email from their accounts receivable because of my delay.”
loan /mortgage emprestimo / hipoteca
“I got a loan from the bank to buy two more trucks.”
to borrow money / to lend money tomar dinheiro emprestado / emprestar dinheiro
“The bank lend me some money and I borrowed some more from my brother.”
accountant / accounting / accountancy contador / contabilidade / contabilidade
“Hank is responsible for accounting at our company.”
tax imposto, tributo
“In Brazil people pay a lot of taxes.”
book value o valor (da empresa ou bem) na contabilidade
“Considering 2 years of depreciation, the book value is now at 25,000.00 USD.”
equity o valor da empresa: todos os bens (assets) menos as dividas (liabilities)
“According to the balance sheet, we have 3 million in equity.”
fixed assets bens que a empresa normalmente usa por periodos acima de 1 ano, ex: carros, imoveis, maquinas
“In order to generate cash, we are going to sell some of our fixed assets and rent them instead.”
liquid assets bens de facil venda sem perda de valor, ex: estoque, contas a receber, ações
“We have more liquid than fixed assets.”
to depreciate, to write off depreciar
“We depreciate all our assets every month.”
EBITDA, earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization EBITDA – lucros antes de de juros, impostos e tributos, depreciação e amoritzação
“We like to see the EBITDA to understand the financial health of the company.”
growth rate taxa de crescimento
“Our annual growth rate after inflation is 10%.”
interest rate taxa de juros
“Brazilian interest rates are really high compared to the US, but not if compared to Ghana.”
report relatorio, relatar/declarar
“Marco will report the discoveries of the audit in the monthly report.”
(spread) sheet planilha
“The report included 3 sheets with numbers.”
savings account conta de poupança
“He puts all his money under his matress instead of in a savings account.”
checkings account conta corrente
“She monitors everything that goes in and out of the checkings account.”
ATM caixa electronica
“I went to the ATM to withdraw some money.”
to withdraw sacar dinheiro /  retirar
“I went to the ATM to withdraw some money.”
bankruptcy / to go bankrupt / to go broke falência / falir / falir (informal)
“The company went bankrupt 3 years ago.”
costs / spendings / expenses custos / despesas / despesas
“You can write down any expenses here.”
invoice, bill nota fiscal / conta (contas da casa e de restaurante)
“They sent us the invoice.” “Can I have the bill please.”
billing atividade e ou setor de mandar e receber contas a receber
“Marcia is responsible for billing.”
receipt recibo
“Make sure you get a receipt.”
IPO – initial public offering abertura do capital na bolsa
“The stock price of BGC has only increased since their IPO.”
stock /  shares / stock exchange ações / ações / bolsa de valores
“I bought 10 shares of Google in 2009 and now they are worth a lot.”
public company / publicly-held company empresa de capital aberto
/ publicly-traded company “Vale used to be a government-run company and now it’s a public company.”
investment investimento
We will spend 4 million on investments next year.”
fees / licensing fees / patent fees honorários / honorários de licensiamento / honorários de patente
“The lawyer’s fees are expensive. He charges 300 USD per hour.”
income renda
“My income is based on salary plus the rent I get from 2 apartments.”
markup margem bruta
“The store sells our product at a 200% markup on the purchase price.”
break-even point ponto de equilibrio
“After two years of losses the company finally reached break-even point.”
to be in the red / to be in the blue estar no vermelho / estar no azul
“I don’t like to be in the red cause I don’t want to pay interest.”
overhead custos não diretamente relacionados a um produto/unidade (ex: aluguel, administração, agua e luz)
“We’re moving to a smaller and simpler office to cut down on overhead.”
fixed costs custos fixos
“We’re moving to a smaller and simpler office to cut down on fixed costs.”
variable costs custos variaveis
“The meat used in the dishes is a key variable cost for a BBQ restaurant.”
value / to value / valuation valor / valorizar / precificação de empresas
“The value of the company will be determined by an independent valuation.”
SOX – Sarbanes Oxley lei americana rigida de contabilidade para empresas de capital aberto
“As we are a branch of a US publicly listed company, we need to follow SOX regulations.”
personal finance finanças pessoais
“She’s a financial planner and helps individuals with their personal finances.”
retirement / pension fund fundo de aposentadoria
“I invested my money in 3 different pension funds.”
debt divida
“You can’t take on too much debt. You’ll have trouble paying it back.”
bottom line resultado final / lucro
“This month’s bottom line is really good.”
auditor, audit, auditing auditor, uma auditoria (ex: fizeram uma auditoria ontem), atividade de auditoria (ex: ela trabalha com auditoria)
“Jessica is an auditor and she works at KPMG auditing.”
compliance o ato e a demonstração que a empresa segue as regras
“The auditor said that our financial compliance is in order, but our environmental compliance is not.”
cash payment / wire transfer pagamento avista / transferência (internacional)
“The amount is too big for a cash payment, so I’ll make a wire transfer.”
FTE – full time equivalent se você tem 10 pessoas na sua empresa, todos trabalhando 2.5 dias, então terá 5 FTEs
“Our company has 45 FTEs.”
real estate (mercado) imobiliário, imóveis
“Real estate prices have increased a lot according to my real estate agent.”
recurring / non-recurring cost custo recorrente / não recorrente
“Internet is a recurring cost and the new computer isn’t.”
average media
“The average sales per month is 150,000.00 USD”
installment buying compra parcelado com o vendedor (Nos EUA normalmente você parcela com o banco ou cartão, não com o vendedor)
“We are paying the machine in 6 installments.”
bank statement extrato bancário
“I check my bank statement every month to understand my expenses.”
auction leilão
“If you don’t pay back the bank they’ll confiscate your house and sell it at an auction.”